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Electricity end-use efficiency: experience with technologies, markets, and policies throughout the world.

1992

2299
CIENA

ELECTRICITY GROWTH. ISSUES ADDRESSED IN THE REPORT. TRENDS IN WORLD ELECTRICITY CONSUPMTION. Overall electricity growth. Electricity and GDP growth. Electricity use per capita. Change in energy sources for electricity generation. Patterns of electricity consupmtion. IMPLICATIONS. TECHNOLOGIES TO ACHIEVE GREATER ELECTRICITY END USE EFFICIENCY. RESIDENTIAL APPLIANCES. Refrigerators and freezers. Water heaters. Clothes washers. Clothers dryers. HEATING, VENTILATION, AND AIR CONDITION(HVAC). Residential buildings. Commercial buildings. LIGHTING. Incandescent and incandescent substitutes. Fluorescent lamps. High intensity discharge lamps. Lighting design and controls. Summary of lighting savings potential. MOTORS. Technologies. Energy-efficient motors. Variable speed drives. Power quality. Specifying and maintenance practices. Drivetrain components. Economics and savings potential. Current status. ELECTRICITY INTENSIVE INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES. Aluminum production. Chlor-Alkali production. Electric arc furnaces. ELECTRICITY CONSERVATION SUPPLY CURVES. Unitec States. Europe and developing countries. FACTORS LIMITING ADOPTION OF TECHNOLOGIES FOR INCREASING ELECTRICITY END-USE EFFICIENCY. COMSUMERS LEVEL FACTORS. Information costs and related issues. Bounded rationality. Capital constraints. Split incentives. Differences in produict attributes. Variation in usage patterns. NATIONAL LEVEL BARRIERS. Lack of adequate institutional capability. Supply oriented, centralized utilities. Lack of costs- based electricity prices. Lack of energy efficient products. INTERNATIONAL LEVEL FACTORS. Lack of funding. Lack of effective collaboration between industrialized and developing countries. EXPERIENCE WITH POLICIES AND PROGRAMS. ELECTRICITY PRICING. PROGRAMS IN THE UNITED STATES AND OTHER INDUSTRIALIZED COUNTRIES. Information programs. Energy rating and labiling. Tecnical information for non-energy efficient buildings. Appliance efficiency standards. Financial incentives to appliance manufacturers. Commercial building energy standards. Integrated resource planning and utility demand side program implementation. Overview of IPR. Origins of IPR in the United States. Current status of IPR and DSM. Utility demand side managements(DSM) programs. Significance of these developments. Research and development. ELECTRICITY CONSERVATION PROGRAMS AND POLICIES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES. Overview. Brazil. Pakistan. Thailand. CONCLUSIONS. IMPORTANCE OF ELECTRICITY END-USE EFFICIENCY. TECHNOLOGIES TO INCREASE ELECTRICITY END-USE EFFICIENCY. FACTORS LIMITING ACCEPTANCE OF EFFICIENT TECHNOLOGIES. EXPERIENCES WITH POLICIES. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS.

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Ministerio de Ambiente y Energía. Secretaría de Planificación del Sub-Sector Energía - Centro de Información de Energía y Ambiente, CIENA

Grettel Ruiz Matarrita

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