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Trash, traffic and taxes : elements of market-based pollution policy.



EXECUTIVE SUMMARY. Theory of pollution taxes. Priorities, ramking, and valuation of pollutions. Solid waste problems and economic incentives. Transportation emissions and economic incentives. Use of revenue from pollution taxes. INTRODUCTION. Economic theory of pollution taxes. The target of the tax in theory and practice. Criteria for tax design. Multiple taxation. PRIORITIZATION, AGGREGATION, AND VALUATION OF POLLUTANTS FOR SETTING TAXES. Motivation. The scientific background. Objectives, priorities and rankings. Examples of ranking systems. Approaches to aggegating pollutants. A recommended approach. THE SOLID WASTE PROBLEM: WICH ROLE FOR ECONOMIC INCENTIVES?. Definition of solid waste. Our focus on post-consumption waste. The externalities of waste generation. Control variables for the environmental externalities of solid waste. Who controls the solid waste stream?. Implicationsfor a solid waste tax: End-user fees or product charges?. EMISSIONS FROM TRANSPORTATION: WHICH ROLE FOR ECONOMIC INCENTIVES?. Environmental impacts from transportation. The focus of this discussion. Targets for economic policy: Wich variables drive emissions?. The role of economic instruments. Major emissions arising in the transportation sector. Economic instruments to reduce transportation air emissions. THE USE OF THE REVENUE FROM POLLUTION TAXES. Allocation and distribution. Revenue uses. Apendix A: The optimality of taxes in economic models. Appendix B: Summary of the tellus institute packaging study ranking and valuation system. Appendix C: The life-cycle of pollutants: two examples. Appendix D: Air emissions externality values adopted/proposed in various states.

Presenta gráfs. y tbls. Document prepared for Pace University. Center for Environmental Legal Studies

Ministerio de Ambiente y Energía. Secretaría de Planificación del Sub-Sector Energía - Centro de Información de Energía y Ambiente, CIENA

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