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Distribution system loss management manual.




FOREWORD. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. MANAGEMENT GUIDELINES. Cost optimization. Mathematical barriers. Priorities. Step-by-step procedure. Ongoing process. Goals. Checklist. Proven benefits. ASSESSMENT OF LOSSES. Loss reduction plan. Location of losses. Cost of losses. The first loss assessment. Losses on system components. Reconciliation. Compound losses. Exercice. ANALYSIS AND RECORD KEEPING. Load factor. Losses vs. Loads. Loss factor. Peak responsability. Power factor. Recordkeeping. Exercise. SUBSTATION TRANSFORMER LOSSES. Loss characteristics of transformers. Existing system considerations. Purchasing new substation transformers. Evaluating transformer bids. Exercise. DISTRIBUTION LINE LOSSES. Line voltage and losses. Circuit configurations. Line conductors. Underground primary lines. Secondary and service lines. Exercises. DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER LOSSES. Loss analysis. Purchasing distribution transformers. Existing system transformers. Exercices. VOLTAGE REGULATORS. Regulation at substations. Line regulators. CAPACITORS. Effect of capacitors. Types de capacitor installations. Exercise. ELECTRIC METERING DEFICIENCIES. Defective meters. Miswired meters. Meter reading errors. Data entry errors. Misrecorded meter multipliers. Misapplied rate schedules. Low demand resolution. Electronic meters to remedy deficiencies. Poor meter security. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF LOSSES. First cost vr. annual cost. Variable annual cost. Economic comparison study. Conclusion. Exercise. Appendix A Typical substation transformer losses-units with and without load tap changers. B Distribution primary line losses. C Typical distribution transformer losses. D Typical voltage regulator losses. E Secondary and service line losses. F Solutions to exercises. G Typical distribution transformer impedances. H basic electrical formulas.

Presenta ilus., tbls. y diagrs.

Ministerio de Ambiente y Energía. Secretaría de Planificación del Sub-Sector Energía - Centro de Información de Energía y Ambiente, CIENA

Grettel Ruiz Matarrita

Calle 25, Avenidas 8 y 10. San José, Costa Rica

(506)25476900 - 25476239

De lunes a viernes de 8 a.m. a 12m.

Address: Av. Mariscal Antonio José de Sucre N58-63 y Fernández Salvador Edif. Olade - San Carlos, Quito - Ecuador.

Web: www.olade.org

Phone: (593 2) 259 8122 / 2598 280

Correo: realc@olade.org

Desarrollado por: Aikyu-Systems